Eravikulam National Park is located in the High Ranges (Kannan Devan Hills) of the Southern Western Ghats in the Devikulam Taluk of Idukki District, Kerala State (Map 1A & IB) between 10º 05′ – 10º 20′ N Latitude and 77º 0′ – 77º 10′ E Longitude.
Etymologically, Eravikulam denotes streams and pools.
The area, which was managed as a Game Preserve by the erstwhile Kannan Devan Hills Produce Company through the High Range Game Association was resumed by the Government of Kerala in 1971 under the Kannan Devan Hill Produce (Resumption of lands) Act 1971.
Subsequently, as recommended in the Land Board Award (LB (A) 2-5227/71 dt.29-3-1974), the Government of Kerala declared the area as Eravikulam-Rajamala Wildlife Sanctuary in 1975 for the protection of the highly endangered Nilgiri Tahr and its habitat (G.O No. 8907/FM/375/AD dated 31-03-1975).
It was elevated to the status of a National Park in 1978 (G.O (MS) 142/78 dated 19-05-1978)
Eravikulam National Park is 97 km2 in extent and consists mostly of high altitude Grasslands that are interspersed with Sholas. The main body of the National Park comprises of a high rolling plateau with a base elevation of about 2000 meters from mean sea level.
The park is of undulating terrain and the highest peak is Anamudi (2695 m). Three major types of plant communities found in the park are: Grasslands, Shrub Land and Shola Forests. The high plateau and the hills rising above it are primarily covered by Grasslands. Shrub Lands are seen along the base of the cliffs. Shola Forests are located in the valleys and folds. Turner’s valley, which splits the park roughly in half from northwest to southeast is the deepest.