Glochidion ellipticum

EUPHORBIACEAE

Local Name: Chendana, Chathakkadambu, Kulachan, Njanjetti

Habitat: Evergreen and Shola Forest

Distribution: Endemic to Western Ghats

Descriptions

Trees, to 15 m high, bark blackish-grey or dark brown, with shallow vertical striations; branchlets sometimes sparsely puberulous when young, become glabrous. Leaves simple, alternate, distichous, 4-17 x 1.5-9 cm, elliptic, oblong, elliptic-oblong, elliptic-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, subfalcate or obovate, apex apiculate to acuminate or obovate, base acute, attenuate, round or oblique, margin entire, coriaceous, glabrous, glossy; lateral nerves 5-12 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae scalariform, faint; stipule lateral; petiole 2-9 mm long, stout, glabrous. Flowers unisexual, yellow, in dense clusters from leafscars. Male flowers: pedicels 5-17 mm long, filiform; tepals 3+3, 1.5-5 x 0.3-2 mm, ovate, elliptic, triangular, oblong, linear or spathulate; stamens 3-4, 1-1.5 mm long, connate by their connectives in a column; connectives produced. Female flowers: sessile or pedicels 1-5 mm long; tepals 3+3, 1-3 x 0.5-1 mm, linear, oblong, elliptic or triangular, occasionally sparsely puberulous; ovary superior, 0.5-1 mm across, subglobose, densely hispid, usually 4 locular, ovules 2 in each cell; style 2-3 mm, columnar to conical, sometimes obconic; lobes corresponds to locules, subosrbicular, oblong or linear, occasionally bilobulate, erect or spreading. Fruit a capsule 3-10 x 6-15 mm, depressed, unlobed or shallowly to deeply lobed with the lobes rounded or bilobular, crustaceous, hirsute, pedicels 2-8 mm; seeds brown, glabrous.

Citations

Glochidion ellipticum Wight, Ic. t. 1906. 1852; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 321. 1887; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1308(915). 1925; Mohanan, Fl. Quilon Dist. 367. 1984; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 418. 1988; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 430. 1990; M. Mohanan & Henry, Fl. Thiruvanthapuram  417. 1994; Chakrab. & Gangop., Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 19: 199. 1995; Subram., Fl. Thenmala Div. 339. 1995; Sasidh. et al., Bot. Stud. Med. Pl. Kerala 22,31,36. 1996; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 404. 1996; Sasidh., Fl. Shenduruny WLS 289. 1997; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 622. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. Chinnar WLS 285. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Periyar Tiger Reserve 373. 1998; Sasidh., Fl. Parambikulam WLS 291. 2002; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 609. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 446. 2005; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab., Fam. Euphorbiaceae India 348. 2007; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 740. 2009.

 

Phyllanthus malabaricus Muell.-Arg., Linnaea 34: 69. 1865 & in Flora 48: 386. 1865 & in DC., Prodr. 15: 305. 1866.

 

Glochidion malabaricum (Muell.-Arg.) Bedd., Fl. Sylv. 193. 1872; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 319. 1887; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 1308(915). 1925; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 419. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 360. 1989; Sivar. & Mathew, Fl. Nilambur 622. 1997; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 609. 2002; Anil Kumar et al., Fl. Pathanamthitta 446. 2005.